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Advertising [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
FIRE ACCIDENT MARINE-LIVE STOCK. HEAD OFFICE: 263 GEORGE ST., SYDNEY. AGENTS WANTED. Business is easily secured for "THE I.O.A." Men willing to co-operate with the Company, will be given every as sistance. Liberal commissions allowed. Apply promptly by letter. ACCIDENT DEPARTMENT. PKIiSOXA L ACCIDENT. SICKNESS. WORKERS' COMPENSATION, &c. FIRE. Policies issued at lowest rates. Bush Fires and Loss by Lightning covered without extra charge. THE COMPANY INSURES 0 ROWING CROPS. HAY STACKS. LIVE STOCK. The Best Company for the Man on the Land 'Mil WEARE BORN TO DPPFR RENFFITS " AUSTRALIAN TO THE BACKBONE." Temora Grain Storage Co. Ltd. 64 PITT STREET, SYDNEY Provides Storage Accommodation at Sydney and Country Centres for Farmers' Wheat. Full particulars as to Rates, &c., on application to THE SECRETARY. The British Immigration League is receiving regularly, small parties of COUNTRY WORKERS, Included in each party are ex-soldiers, sailors, and reservists. FARMERS AND COUNT...
IMPROVING THE PASTURES. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
IMPROVING THE. PASTURES. There is one direction in which the Department of Agriculture can be of immense benefit to the farmer and small grazier, viz., in teaching them how to improve pastures that have suffered from various- causes, especi ally.; being deficient in plant food, which does not mean that the soil lias lost any of its chemical contents. There are many forage-plants, in . Australia that can .be easily propa gated, and if the .Department were tovset aside an"area solelydevoted, to: this purpose, it would, in time, be able to supply most of the require ments of the settlers. A small area is given up to the growth bf native grasses, etc., at some "of the experi mental farms, but nothing like what it should be, find few farmers know what is being done. Messrs. Maiden and Turner have given Us in their publications the results of their in vestigations, and that- the settlers '&lt;ave so little profited by them, is, to a large extent, their own (fault. Mr. F. Turner's ...
WAGGA FARMERS' FAIR. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
WAGGA FARMERS' PAIR. On Wednesday, March 1st, the Wagga Farmers' Fair will be held, under the auspices of the Wagga Branch of the F. & S. Association. An excellent schedule has been pre pared, and the prize-list covers a splendid range of subjects. Entries close on February 2S, with the Hon. Secretary, Mr. G. Lindon.*
WILGA PLAINS. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
WILGA PLAINS. At a special meeting this branch approved the following rates: Harvester and stripper drivers, 42s a week, or 8s per day; 9 hours clear working hours from the time they yolk their teams, to constitute a day's work. Threshing Machine Hands, 8d per hour (lOd per hour for "chaffy"), and found. Hours, 5 a.m. to 8 p.m. Harvest Hands.-8d per hour. Stack Builders.-8s per day of 9 hours. Cook at Harvest Time.-30s per week. Permanent Farm Hands: 22s 6d per week. A fixed number of hours is consid ered unworkable.
DUMARESQ. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
DUMARESQ. "I herewith give you the rates in vogue in our district," writes the Du maresq secretary:-"Our usual cus tom in threshing time is for neigh bours to help one another, and occa sionally put on a few hands at 5s per day and found. Where farmers have broken time, the pay to be pro-rata. In harvest time 20s per weak and found, and upwards to, say, 25s and found, or from Gs to 7s a day. Gene ral farm hands-permanent men 20s to 25s and found. These wages have proved satisfactory in the past, but since the R.W.U. demands have been circulated about, the minds of the workers have been poisoned to a cer tain extent. 'Ouv district is not a large wheat growing place, lots of the farmers having less than a day's threshing, so the machines are continually shift ing about, and work when they can. When set for a full day's work they start at 6 a.m., and have two smoke oh's in the day, and three meals, working till 7 p.m. Binder drivers would never get a full week's work here, and we con s...
WEST WYALONG. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
WEST WYALONG. The branch discussed the Rural Workers' demands, and passed mo tions which will be sent on to the Executive. In nearly every case, as affecting general farming, members agreed to tlie wages asked for, but could not agree to eight hours in harvest time.
UNDERBANK. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
UNDERBANK. At a special meeting of this branch (about fifty farmers being present), the following resolutions were adop ted:-"That we utterly oppose any interference with a farmer and his family in any way, on the grounds that any outside interference ham pers the efforts of the whole family. "That we utterly oppose the divi sion of any farm labour, under sepa rate heads, and different scales of payment, as on mixed farms, the work may vary every hour." "That we are utterly opposed to the abolition of child labour during school years, on the grounds that the present school regulations, would on those conditions debar children from learning to milk, or beginning their knowledge of farm work until after the age of 14 years, which we believe would be harmful to the children in many ways; but Ave favour limited work to prevent the overworking of ?State children." "That we utterly oppose any inter ference with the employer and his employee in any way/' It was decided that delegates be . ...
THE FRUIT MARKET. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
THE FRUIT MARKET. Tkc local market for fruit, which practically collapsed last week, has now resuined its normal condition, with tne return of dry weather. Amongst a,pples good Trivett seed lings brought from 8s to 12s per case, aboftfr' equal to the American wine saps. There has been, however, ra ther a glut in pears, especially the China varieties. The recent supplies of./^Williams Bon Cretien pears rather, exceeded the demand. It ib interest ing to note that the Victorian Wil liams almost invariably brings high er prices than the local product. . This is not due to any superiority in soil or climate, but to greater care in grading and packing. The Victorian pears are generally small or medium size, and very even in colour and qua lity. A few years back the Williams pear was the most extensively plant ed variety throughout N.S.W. These young trees, now coming into bear ing, are providing fruit of extra size, but; abnormally large, pears are not . required for market. A fruit the s...
DRYING FRUIT. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
DRYING FRUIT. The artificial drying of fruit is a subject which lately has been attract ing increasing attention among or ehardists in Australia. The follow ing from the "Town and Country Journal," regarding methods of con structing dryers, is worth reproduc ing:-"There are two general forms of evaporators used. In one hot air is made to circulate as rapidly as possible through a compartment, in which the trays of fruit are placed, the other is by means of steam pipes which are run back and forth through the dryer. The object is the same in either case, to raise the tempera ture of the compartment high enough to evaporate the moisture from the fruit. The steam dryer is more fa voured, as it is possible to keep up a drying temperature with less trouble, and there is less danger of running it too high and scorching the fruit than with the hot-air appli ances. The boiler in the steam plant should be able to maintain a pressure of 1001b., and a temperature of- 250 deg. Fahr., The greate...
UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE. Surface drains diagonally across hills will carry ofl' much surplus sur face. But for the steady, soaking rains just received, some system of underground drains are necessary. Sandy soils, or those with shale sub soil, are generally fairly porous, but even these can become saturated and soured. On stiff clay soils, under ground drainage is most essential. The necessity, however, is not yet well understood or appreciated by our friends on the land. Even our agricultural experts have given too little consideration to this important subject. At the present time, the fruit trees at one of the State or chards show the effect of planting on stiff clay soil; without first making provision for. underground drainage.
WINDBREAKS AND FROST. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
WINDBREAKS AND FROST. Where a sharp fall or gully exists on the eastern side of an orchard, it is generally best left free from shel ter trees, so that the cold air will have a chance to drain away. Shel ter belts of timber, however, exercise a considerable protection to orchards. Generally, they should be planted on the western side, but occasionally may be useful oil the south. Trees or . hills on the eastern side frequently shades the early rising sun from fruit''arid crops, until the frosts have melted. Generally the place where the' siut first strikes is the most seri ously affected. The sudden thawing causes the congealed sap to expand and burst the plant cells, thus caus ing collapse of the tender tissues. The efl'eet of frost may be checked by watering or spraying with warm, and . protecting ??.from. sun. Smoke: smudges will also protect, as well as raise the temperature of the locality. The orchard must be well sheltered, however, to retain the smoke from the vicinity. This...
FRUIT PACKED IN SAWDUST. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
FRUIT PACKED IN SAWDUST. Mr. Spears, an orchardist of Gul gong,. AVIIO has successfully preserved fruit in sawdust, giving a contempo rary particulars of liis methods, says: "I have preserved eating and cooking apples, peaches and quinces by pick ing the fruit oil' the trees when near ly ripe, taking great care in hand ling not to bruise them, wrapping separately in tissue paper, and pack ing in shallow cases with clean, dry sawdust. The common sawdust from the firewood mills does very well. If the cases are put in a dry and cool place, the fruit will keep for several months. The flavour of the fruit so: packed is improved. In fact, the fruit which I tried as an experiment improved considerably in flavour; and the skin remained firm, not wrinkling, as is. the* case with some fruit ,which lias been packed for some time. The apples and pears which I experimented with were packed away about six months, and they were per fectly fresh looking when opened up, and apparently would have bee...
EFFECT OF DRAINAGE. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
EFFECT OF DRAINAGE. There exists a common idea that be cause we have occasional dry spells, that it is not profitable to drain, ex cept on swampy land. It is, however, a curious fact that an underground drained ^orchard can resist dry wea ther better than undrained land. Un der normal conditions the water rush es away, carries with it the best soil, or most soluble. fertilising ingre dients, whereas on land that has been sub-drained the water filters through the soil, and only the surplus escapes. We noted a striking example of the beneficial effect of drainage a few weeks back. A fruit grower had planted some rows of corn between his young apple trees. Diagonally, across the corn between every fourth row of trees he had previously open ed out a trench, and refilled with saplings and rubble stone. Wherever the corn crossed the drains the stalks had grown three to four feet higher, and was a better colour than the other portion. Underground drained ground is warmer in winter, and gro...
EXPERIMENTING FARMERS. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
EXPERIMENriNG FARMERS. Nothing has contributed more to the progress of agriculture in Can- # ?ada - than the information gained through the medium of the Farmers' Experimental,Union. Connected with this union there are in different dis tricts liundreds of farmers who un dertake to carry out experiments on lines indicated by. the central office of the Union, and to send up a re pott; of the results, to the office. This system of co-operative experimental work was started 24 years ago in a small way, and lias gradually in creased in/ extent. and influence throughout the province. In farming practice the number of co-operative experiments in the 24 years from 1886 to 1909 have been 54,345. In horticulture from 1894, when this branch was started, to 1909, the number lias been 9,571. In the report it is stated that it is impossible to estimate the influence of the co-operative experiments in bringing 25,000 to 30,000 farmers to visit the college annually; in doubl ing the output of Ontar...
CHEAP ENSILAGE. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
CHEAP ENSILAGE. Mr. Egbert Wyiidham, of "Duruka," Tamworth, writes:-Land occupiers,: both great and small, on opening their newspapers, are frequently;.. greeted with objurgation for'-failing to conserve, fodder in the form of ensilage. The press itself is largely . to blame for this apparent apathy, by its insistence on. the necessity of expensive silos, expensive plant for illling, and expensive stalls and liian gers for feeding, all of which means an outlay of several hundreds of pounds, and is beyond consideration by the average dairy farmer. If the agricultural writer would devote less attention to tiie wealthy hobby farmer's showy silo, and more to tlie economical methods "of fodder conservation, dairy fanners would be induced to make better use of tlieir opportunities. 1 For excavating a pit no.machinery is :required, beyond a small scoop, and a-single-furrow plough. For iill ing the pit, the ordinary farm drays and carts are suitable. One man and a boy, with two horses, can ...
Orchard Notes. HELP ON THE HORIZON AT LAST. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
Orchard Notes. HELP ON THE HORIZON AT LAol\ Though by far the most disunited body of producers, the fruit-growers seem to be .bordering on a'time, when they will get relief from th'e help less position they have occupied for so many years. y The State Govern ments have taken up their case Avith some degree of enthusiasm since the producers themselves'" ventilated . tiieir grievances in conference. The various Ministers of Agriculture are to snortly hold a conference to dis cuss the hundred and one subjects of pressing importance to the indus try. Among the urgent matters awaiting adjustment are tne regula tions relating to the disposal of fruit to tne factories, the readjustment of the fees charged on interstate trade consignments, the adoption of a uni form case, the determination as to whether citrus fruits should be al lowed admission if fumigated at the port of shipment, Aviliout further treatment, and the better regula tion of the export certificates. It is thought that if prop...
AUSTRALIA'S DEPLETED FORESTS. [Newspaper Article] — The Land — 17 February 1911
AUSTRALIA'S DEPLETED FORESTS. One of the braw Caledonians who recently visited Australia left a word behind him at. Perth (observes the "Clarence River Advocate"), lie urg ed Australia to nave an eye to the future in the matter of its timber supply, and not blot out its whole arboreal wealth in one act, and leave the land a leafless desolation. In ; that respect the braw Caledonian spoke wisdom. In the last 50 years of hustle the human race has wiped out its timber resources in an amaz ing fashion. The; United States, which was once almost one vast for est, lias become about as bald as the top of Bismark's head in his latter days, and there is talk of a tax on newspapers to restrict publication, because the tearing down of forests to make wood pulp, which ultimately becomes the paper on which details of the murder, are printed, has gone beyond all reason. Anyhow, one tree is worth 20 murders. It is a. patch of joy on the landscape, a wind-break, a refuge against the sun and rain, an...