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Elephind.com contains 4,460 items from Indian Advocate, The, samples of which are listed below. All items from this newspaper title are freely available and can be searched from the search box above. You may also search the entire collection of 2,949 newspaper titles in Elephind.com.
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Page 1 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

Vol. XIV. ' The Indian Advocate AUGUST, 1902. THE HOME. There is a land, of every land the pride, Belov'd by Heaven o'er all the world beside, Where brighter suns dispense serener light And milder moons emparadise the night; A land of beauty, virtue, valor, truth, Time tutored age, and love exalted youth. The wandering mariner, whose eye explores The wealthiest isles, the most enchanting shores, Views not a realm so beautiful and fair, Nor breathes a spirit of a purer air: In every clime the magnet of his soul, Touch'd by remembrance, trembles at that pole; For in this land of Heaven's peculiar grace, The heritage of nature's noblest race, There is a spot of earth supremely blest ' A dearer, sweeter spot than all the rest Where man, creation's tyrant, casts aside His sword, and sceptre, pageantry, and pride; Within his softened looks benignly blend The sire, the son, the husband, father, friend: Here, xvoman reigns; the mother, daughter, wife, Strews, with fresh flowers, the narrow ...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 2 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

226 The Indian Advocate. -- The Cherokees, 4? rfr It $ Their Early History, Treaties and Emi' gration West of the Mississippi, j HE name Cherokee is probably derived from the Tword Cherra-fire; the prophets of this nation u: nj ri i. i j:..: c ueuig Uctiitiu v.yijtJia.-uiyiigt:, uicu ui uiviuc inc. The Cherokees were first heard of about the year 1620, after the Spanish invasion, and in con nection with the British settlers of Virginia. Here they had numerous and populous towns, virViilo covoral rf flioir cotflomontc rrjarJior1 ic thf ggl: Appomattox, from where they were afterwards driven by the Virginians and forced to retreat to the Holsten river. The early Cherokees claimed blood rela tionship with the Powhattans, which is probably correct, as these tribes were somewhat similar in their customs and char acteristics. The Holsten river and its tributaries did not long remain the headquarters of the Cherokees. They were attacked by the tribes from the north and driven to the Little...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 3 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

The Indian Advocate 227 scendants of the Mound Builders. It is a curious fact that these mounds are nowhere so numerous as in that portion of the country which was once inhabited by the Cherokee. About the period of 1700, the Cherokee Nation consisted of sixty-four towns. The Upper Cherokees, living on the Tellico and the Tennessee rivers, were continually engaged in warfare with the northern Indians, while those of the Lower towns, on the Oconee and Savannah rivers, were harassed by the Creeks. Then, again, they had to fight the French aud English at different periods. From these causes, as well as the terrible scourge of small-pox, the Cherokees, in 1740, were reduced from seven to five thousand warriors. In physical appearance this people were a splendid race tall and athletic. Their women, especially, differed from those of other tribes, being tall, erect and of a willowy, deli cate frame, with features of perfect symmetry and complex ion of olive. The warriors' heads were shave...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 4 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

228 The Indian Advocate. superior officers and generals of the English and French armies. The first treaty made by the Cherokee was with the British Government, and was consummated at Dover, June 30, 1721. Six Cherokee chiefs appeared before George III. on this memorable occasion and pledged their fealty to his majesty. In 1761, Henry Timberlake, a lieutenant in the British service, in order to cultivate friendly relations with the Chero kees, visited the towns on the Tellico and Tennessee rivers and persuaded three powerful chieftains to accompany him to England. These were Outa-se-at, Collauna (the Raven) and his nephew, Okonnostot, chief of the Long-hair clan. They were presented to George III., being introduced at court by Colonel Beamer. Here they exhibited a dignity and bearing in keeping with their rank and influence as represen tatives of a great nation. During the Revolutionary war the Cherokees remained faithful, and were powerful allies of the British until after the Decl...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 5 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

The Indian Advocate. 229 was not fully restored to the border until the summer of 1794, when Major Ore destroyed two large Cherokee towns Run- " ning Water and Nickajack. , In the year 1809 the Upper and Lower Cherokees began to v . develop a difference in tastes and methods of living. The former were making considerable progress in agriculture, while the latter, who chiefly subsisted on the proceeds of the chase, ! were becoming discontented with the growing scarcity of game. Accordingly, a party of Lower Town Cherokees started out for the White river country in Arkansas, with a view of finding a better hunting ground. In this they were successful, and in eight years from the date of their first settlement there were 3,000 members of the tribe located on the White river and its tributaries. Then followed the treaty of 1817, whereby the United States Government magnanimously presented each poor exile Indian with a rifle, trap and blanket, in lieu of his home claim, and transported h...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 6 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

230 The Indian Advocate. drafted and concluded in December, 1835. This treaty was a clear release of all lands owned by the Cherokees east of the Mississippi, for the sum of $5,000,000. One of the saddest stories on record is that of the removal of the Cherokees from their eastern homes. Between sixteen and seventeen thousand men, women and youths left Brain ard late in the fall, with a winter's journey of nearly half a year before them. The severity of the weather, together with the number of old and infirm emigrants, rendered them una ble to make over from five to fifteen miles a day. As the sea son advanced, so did disease attack them with dreadful fatal ity. Numbers lay down by the roadside never to rise again. Soon the great caravan became a monstrous funeral proces sion, the averages of death reaching thirteen per day. The time taken to accomplish the journey increased from six to ten months, and when roll was called at the terminus of the trip, over four thousand persons were...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 7 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

('., Hi The Indian Advocate. 231 r Jones. The latter was a strong anti-slavery partisan and sympathized with the Union, while the former at first rejected all overtures and determined to remain neutral during the contest. Gen. Albert Pike, in behalf of the Confederacy, endeavored to treat with Ross, but their meeting only resulted in an order from the chief that strict neutrality should be ob- ' served by his followers. At a meeting held in Tahlequah, August, 1861, in which a large number of Cherokees were '" present and loud in their clamors for alliance with the South, John Ross changed his views and determined, like the large majority, to ally himself with the Confederacy. He there- " upon raised a regiment, placing at its head Colonel Drew, of the Home Guard, and in his address mentioned that they were , to act in concert with the troops of the Southern Confederacy. This regiment, as well as that of Stand Watie, fought at Pea Ridge and elsewhere. Col. Drew's men, however, were i...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 8 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

232 The Indian Advocate. the soil, who fled for safety to Fort Gibson, until that post sheltered no less than six thousand of the refugees. The lat ter had brought back with them supplies and material for agricultural pursuits, which fell into the hands of Stand Watie and his followers. At the termination of the war a general council meeting was convened at Fort Smith, which was at tended by delegates from the tribes west of Ninety-eight, as well as those of the five civilized tribes. They were met by United States Commissioners, who, on the part of the govern ment, proposed various measures for their future. The com mission, however, refused to recognize John Ross as a proper representative of his people, as his record had been such as to excite a want of confidence. The meeting broke up without the accomplishment of any business, and nothing was done until June 13th, 1865, when the United States concluded a treaty with the Southern Cherokees, represented by E. C. Boudinot. This pa...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 9 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

The Indian Advocate 233 the common necessaries of life. Had he been dishonest, the opportunities for immense wealth were constantly within his reach. Ross was of mixed Scotch and Indian blood on both side, and a descendant of the two great Scottish families Ross and Stuart. The late chief's unexpired term was filled by his nephew, W. P. Ross, an eminent scholar, but uncom promising in disposition. When asked by Stand Watie's rep resentative at Fort Smith, if the Southern Cherokees might return to their homes in peace, he answered: "No; never can you or your people come back to live on an equal footing with the loyal Cherokees; you who have raided and pillaged your own people." Louis Downing, who was present, and who had held the office of lieutenant-colonel in the Union army, was asked his opinion by Stand Watie's emissary. "If you were chief, Mr. Downing, would you take us back among our people?" to which the latter replied: "I would gladly welcome you back as brothers who had gone...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 10 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

234 The Indian Advocate. 3 !! & $r History of the Kiowas. From the Report of the Bureau of Ethnology. Continued from the July ATumbm' i HE earliest official account of the Kiowa is given I by the explorers Lewis and Clark, who ascended me Missouri in 1004 ana wintered among tne Mandan, before proceeding onward across the mountains and down to the mouth of the Colum bia. They do not appear to have met any of the Kiowa, but heard of them from the tribes living on the river. By that time the Kiowa, whom the explorers erroneously supposed were distinct from the "Wetepahatoes," had been driven out of the Black Hills, which were then in possession of the Cheyenne, while the Dakota held the country to the eastward. The Kiowa were then on the Padouca, or North Platte. This agrees with the statements of old men of the Dakota confed eracy, who related that within their early recollection that tribe had lived between the North Platte and the Niobrara, having been expelled from the Black Hi...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 11 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

The Indian Advocate. 235 The Comanches are described at this period under the name of the "La Playes" division of "Aliatans," or "Snake Indians," as inhabiting the plains from the headwaters of the Arkansas, and including the sources of Red river, and extend ing from the mountains eastward indefinitely. They were a wandering people, claiming no particular boundaries, and, although possessing no guns, were brave and warlike. Their country abounded in wild horses, besides great numbers which they raised themselves. In his volume, published a few years later, the explorer, Zebulon M. Pike, states that the Kiowa, estimated by him to number 1,000 men, had in 1803 been driven by the Dakota into the mountains on the heads of the Platte and Arkansas and north of the Comanche, where they were then wandering. They owned immense herds of horses, were armed with bows, arrows and lances, hunted the buffalo, and were at war with the Dakota, Pawnee and "Tetau" (here meaning the Ute). In another pl...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 12 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

236 The Indian Advocate. of traders from St. Louis. This appears to be the first notice of the Kiowa as living on Red river which, however, may here mean the Canadian and is evidence that they were at this time on friendly terms with the Arapaho and Cheyenne, with both of which tribes they were soon after at war. We also learn from this notice that the St. Louis traders had already begun to come out to trade with them on the Arkan sas, although none were regularly established in their terri tory until some years later. The "Kaskaias" are probably the Kiowa Apache, or possibly the Wichita. We come now to the period covered by the Kiowa calen dars, the first important event of which is the massacre of a large number of the tribe by a war party of the Osage in the early spring of 1833. This led indirectly to the expedition of the First Dragoons in 1834, by which the Kiowa, Comanche. Wichita and associated tribes were first brought into official relations with the United States. When th...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 13 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

The Indian Advocate. 237 government. The principal stipulation was that there should be peace and friendship between the Comanche and Wichita on the one hand, and the United States, Creek, Cherokee and other immigrant tribes and the Osage on the other. 5. Owing to a delay in the negotiations, the Kiowa, who had attended the meeting, became impatient and returned home, and consequently were not parties to this treaty, but two years later a full delegation of Kiowa, Apache and Tawakoni went down to Fort Gibson, where the first treaty between these tribes and the United States was made on May 26, 1837, and was formally ratified the following year. In the document the three tribes are called "the Kioway, Ka-ta-ka and Ta-wa-karo nations of Indians." The general terms of the treaty are the same as in that previously made with the Comanche and Wichita, namely, peace and friendship, with forgiveness of past injuries, and satisfactory settlement of future disputes ' that might arise between ...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 14 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

238 The Indian Advocate. and the republics of Mexico and Texas. The usual presents were then distributed and everybody was happy. The peace thus made with the Osage and Creeks was never broken, although in after years relations with the Osage were somewhat strained in consequence of their serving as scouts j, against the allied southern plains tribes. The promised friendship was also kept with regard to the citizens of the United States until after the annexation of Texas; which the Kiowa and Comanche never ceased to regard as a distinct and hostile government, making a clear distinction between "Americans," i. e., settlers and emigrants from the north or , Kansas side, and "Texans," whom they regarded as a differ ent nation and their enemies, in having driven them from their best hunting grounds in violation of treaties and without compensation. ,"" The treaty commissioners on behalf of the government were Gen. Montfort Stokes and A. P. Chouteau, the latter being a member of the mo...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 15 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

p . The Indian Advocate 239 as yet no communication with traders, but obtained supplies indirectly through the tribes living farther east. From Pike's narrative, however, we learn that James Pursley, "the first American who ever penetrated the immense wilds of Louisi ana," spent a trading season with the Kiowa and Comanche in 1802 or 1803, under engagement with a French trader op erating from the Mandan country, and remained with them until the next spring, when the Dakota drove them from the plains into the mountains at the heads of the Platte and Ar kansas. From Long's statement, also previously quoted, we learn that in 1815, the Kiowa having drifted farther south in the meantime, traders from St. Louis had begun to ascend the Arkansas river to trade with the Kiowa, Cheyenne and other tribes near its headwaters. From other sources it is apparent that before this time they had also had dealings with the Spaniards of New Mexico. The first regular American trading expedition to the K...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 16 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

240 The Indian Advocate. the name of "Soto," Chouteau is still held in affectionate re membrance by the Kiowa. Chouteau's fort on the Canadian was considered to be in Comanche territory. Shortly after the treaty with the Kiowa in 1837, he established what they regard as the first trading post within their own country, on the west bank of Cache creek, about three miles below the present Fort Sill, Oklahoma, but the trader in charge did not remain long. Another store was established nearly on the same ground by William Madison in 1869, after the tribes had been assigned to a reservation. In 1844 William Bent began building trading posts on the South Canadian, in the Texas Panhandle, near the principal Kiowa trails. They also traded extensively at various points on the Arkansas until their final removal to Indian Territory. With the treaty of 1837 and the building of the first trading post in their country, the modern history of the Kiowa may be said to have fairly begun. In the winter...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 17 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

The Indian Advocate. 241 ITHB INDIAN ADVOCATE fr -- DltKlactiarl K Via T)An(l!n!na Cnltiaiw nf I w H II TST I J J! SACRED HEART MISSION. OKLAHOMA. i A Monthly Review Under the Protection of Mary, Queen of the Holy Rosary. St. Michael and St. Benedict. Approved by our Regular Superiors. TKIIMS OF SUBSCRIPTION! Single Copies t 15c. Annual ." $1.00. Fifteen or more Copies sent to one and same Address, each. . 75c. Foreign t. ...$1.25. Entered as Second-class Matter at Sacred Heart, Oklahoma. PIlIVIIKOKSl i. Every Subscriber and Henefactor will participate in all the merits, prayers and good works of the Religious of Sacred Heart Abbey. 2. A solemn High Mass is sung every First Friday of the month in Honor of the Sacred Heart, for the intentions of Subscribers and Benefactors. 3. A Conventual Mass is offered every First Saturday of the month for our departed Friends, Subscribers and Benefactors. 4. Eery year, in the month of September, two Solemn Masses are sung for our Bene factors, on...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 18 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

242 The Indian Advocate. A faithful friend that reproveth of errors is preferable to a deceitful parasite. Who can fully realize the strength of parental affection without experiencing it? And even then", who can describe it? Said an Indian chief to the President: "May the Great Spirit bear up the weight of thy gray hairs, and blunt the arrow that brings them rest." " Some people will do almost anything, rather than own a fault, though everything depends on it. Thus, Seneca's wife, to conceal her blindness, declared that the whole world was in darkness, and none could see. A. pedlar overtook another of his tribe on the road and thus accosted him: "Hello, friend! what do you carry?" "Rum and whisky," was the prompt reply. "Good," said the other; "you may go ahead; I carry tombstones." Society cannot be held together without morals, nor can morals maintain their station in the human Heart without re ligion; and no religion is worth having unless it is founded on truth, which is the co...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 19 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

The Indian Advocate. 243 It is an'odd coincidence that the royal command issued to the Protestant bishops occupying seats in the House of Lords, prohibiting their wearing mitres at the coronation, came through the Duke of Norfolk, the premier Catholic of Eng land. The bishops wore either velvet caps, or else a species of mortar boards, familiar to people in this country as a headgear of college presidents and professors. A sense of justice should be the foundation of all our social qualities. In our most early intercourse with the world, and even in our most youthful amusements, no unfair ness should be found. That sacred rule, of doing all things to others according as we wish they would do unto us, should be engraved on our minds. For this end we should impress ourselves with a deep sense of the original and natural equality of men. - Idleness is the badge of gentry, the bane of body and mind, the nurse of naughtiness, the step-mother of discipline, the chief author of all mischie...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
Page 20 [Newspaper Page] — The Indian advocate. — 1 August 1902

244 The Indian Advocate. Monks were the first coal-miners in Scotland, says Father Barrett in the last Dublin Review. The principal value of the great Abbey of Newbath, near Dalkeith, consisted in immense coal deposits, and the Cistercian monks worked the mines themselves. Man, always prosperous, would be giddy and insolent; always afflicted, would be sullen and despondent. Hopes and fears, joy and sorrow, are, therefore, so blended in his life as both to give room to worldly pursuits, and to recall the admonitions of conscience. It is stated that the Cardinal Archbishop of Cracow is endeavoring to persuade the French Benedictines to re move to Austrian Poland. He offers the exiles the ancient Abbey of Tyniets, now in ruins, formerly a home of the Order for 800 years. It is believed the monks of Solemes will ac cept his offer. - The Fort Hall Indian lands in Idaho will be opened to white settlement. The President's proclamation to this effect has been issued and the necessary instru...

Publication Title: Indian Advocate, The
Source: Chronicling America [US Library of Congress]
Country/State of Publication: Oklahoma, United States
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