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Planting Trees. [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
Planting Trees. As the season for transplanting trees now demands our attention, a few practical hints derived from experiment may not be without profit to the interested. The 'inquiry is frequently made by our friends, v How do you transplant a fruit tree to make it live? I cannot make half my fruit trees live." In the first place, it is very easy to make a fruit tree live, if you understand how. Many persons imagine that there is but little difference between the pknting of a tree and a stake; until they are taught by two or three lessons of disappointment. A case in point will show that knowledge is indispensable to success. A farmer not more than thirty miles from the city of Boston, had an orchard of trees to plant, and wishing to have them live and thrive, employed or engaged the services of an experienced gardener to transplant his trees. The gardenerprepared the soil, and set out on the first da}- ten trees only, (the trees were of large size for nursery trees.) out of one h...
Cuttings of Fruit Trees. [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
Cuttings of Fruit Trees. Cuttings, says the Albany Cultivator, should be made in autumn after growth has ceased, or early in winter —they may be preserved by fastening them in a box by slats running across, and then placing the open side of the box downwards with its contents in the bottom of a pit dug for the purpose, on a dry spot of ground, and burying it with earth, The slats keep the cuttings from coming in contact with the earth below, and the}- are preserved in a proper moist condition. Or, they may be packed in slightly damp moss in a large box, placed in a cellar. Very early in the spring they should be set out. Every cutting should be cut off just above a bud at the upper end. and just below one at the lower end. Taken oft" closely to the old wood, with a base attached, they are more sure of growth. They should be set out in a trench, in a rich mellow soil, which is to be packed or trodden closely about them as the trench is filled, and afterwards a mellow surface made by ...
On Planting Shrubberies. [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
On Planting Shrubberies. If there is one thing more than another, which adds to the embellishment of the grounds, it is the proper distribution of small trees and flowering shrubs around the homestead. It is not quantity which constitutes the charm, as in nine cases out of ten, double the number is planted that thould bo. Every plant should have enough space to keep it from crowding down others; and to shis end, before ever a shrub is set out, the nature, size, and habit of growth of each kind, as far as possible, should be ascertained. Without this, there is danger of placing those most dwarf and conspicuous farthest from the eye, while the strong growing are placed nearly at the outside. Another frequent error is to plant single specimens on the lawn far too near the edge. • This arises from want of perception as to what the effect will be, when it has arrived at its full growth. There should always be, if the lawn is of any size, at least two feet of grass intervening between the...
Gas Tar in Horticulture. [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
Gas Tar in Horticulture. A discovery which is likely to be of great advantage to Agriculture, has just been reported to Agricultural Society, at Clermont,Ohio. A gardener whose frames and hot-houses required painting, decided on making them black, as likely to attract the heat better, and from a principle of economy, he made use of gas tar instead of paint. The work was performed during the winter, and upon the approach of spring the gardener was surprised to find that all the spiders, and insects which usually infested his hot-house, had disappeared, and also that a vine which for the last two years had so fallen off, that he intended to replace it by another, had acquired fresh force and vigor, and gave every sign of producing a large crop of grapes. He afterwards used the same substance on the posts and trellis-works which supported the trees in the open air, and met with the same result, all the caterpillars and other insects completely disappearing. Galig hani's Messenger state...
Forest Trees. [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
Forest Trees. At a recent sitting of the French Academy of Sciences, held in the city of Paris, M. Chevaudier developed a portion of the results of five years' study and experiments upon the manuring of forests, and the augmentation of their annual yield. This question has an interest in France which can hardly be understood in America, where the difficulty is rather to clear the ground of its woody growth, than to stimulate it to greater fruitfulncss. M. Chcvaudier commenced his experiments in 1847, believing it as possible to assist trees in their growth, as flowers, grass, and animal plants. Why could not art interfere to restore to the soil the mineral substances withdrawn from it by the roots of the trees, and by them conveyed to their trunks and branches. Because woods spring up of themselves, and appear to flourish without the aid of man, was it not nevertheless probable that a system of amelioration of the soil might urge them to a more luxuriant vegetation ? The great diffi...
Untitled [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
Large oh Small Seed Potatoes. —By an experiment carefully conducted at the North American Phalanx, the following results were obtained : L Large whole seed, 29 ft 14 02., produced 174 ft. v 2. Large potatoes cut in halves, 15 ft 15 oz., produced 124. 3. Large potatoes cut in quarters, 7 16, produced 98 ft. 4. Medium potatoes, whole, 19 ft 3 oz., produced 146 ft. 5. Medium potatoes cut in halves, 9 ft 6 oz., produced 88V&amp; ft. 6. Medium potatoes cut in quarters, 4 ft produced 67 ft. 7. Small potatoes whole, 9Vs ft, produced 117 ft. 8. Small potatoes cut in halves, 6 ft, produced 81 ft. The percentage of small potatoes to the seed nsed, was greatest in the quartered large potatoes. Repetitions of the experiment have all been in favor of large uncut potatoes for seed.
Valuable Discovery of Gum. [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
Valuable Discovery of Gum. A pew weeks ago we noticed the discovery of great fields of gypsum, and great supplies of gum arabic. at the head waters of Red Brazos, by the expedition of Captain Marcy. Since that period, the Washington Star has published some correspondence of Thomas L. Drew, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and Dr. Shumard, physician to the expedition, describing the gum. Dr. Shumard says, in relation to it, " This gum, for which I propose the name of gum mezquite, is believed to occur in inexhaustible quantities, and will no doubt prove a valuable source of revenue to the State of Texas, New Mexico, and the adjacent Indian territory, besides affording employment to the different tribes of Indians now roving upon the plains, many of whom would no doubt be glad to gather and deliver it to the different frontier posts for a very small compensation. The mezquite tree, from which this gum is obtained, is by far the most abundant tree of the Plains, covering thousands of ...
How to Cure Hams. [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
How to Cure Hams. The following are the recipes for curing hams, furnished by the competitors to whom premiums were awarded for hams exhibited at the Maryland State Fair, held at Baltimore the past week. No. 1. —For 1,000 lbs. of meat, which has hung for several days after killing, take 3 pecks of Liverpool salt, 1 1-2 lbs. salpetre, 3 pints of molasses, 3 lbs. brown sugar, and 1-4 lb. cayenne pepper. Mix these ingredients together and rub the mixture on the meat well and thoroughly, both on the skin and flesh. Let it lie in the salt for about 5 or 6 weeks, hang up, and smoke with green hickory wood J. Carroll Walsh. No. 2—For 1,000 lbs. meat, take 1-2 bushel fine salt, 1-2 gallon best molasses, 3 lbs. brown sugar, 2 1-12 lbs. saltpetre, pounded very fine, mix all the ingredients together in a large washing tub. and rub the meat therewith until you absorb the whole quantity; the meat must be taken out of the cask once a week and rubbed with the pickle it makes; the two first times y...
WASHINGTON. [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
WASHINGTON. BY SAMUEL NEWTON. A stab burst on the gloom of years; It came as with its meteor light, To soothe a nation's doubts and fears— To vindicate, of men, the right Before that meteor star up sprung, The world seemed void of law or ruth; Buttoit s rising glory clung Honor and freedom, right and truth. It passed, but nevermore can fade The memory of its peerless light, The dazzling glory it displayed When in its splendor, beaming bright Before it came, all was dismay; No light, to bless the nations, shone; Now a world hails, of hope, the ray, That sprung to birth with Washington I
A Legend of the Red Men. [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
A Legend of the Red Men. A TRADITIONARY TALE. A little over a century ago, there dwelt on the shores of the St. Lawrence a bold and warlike tribe of Indians called the Chippeways. They were noted for their kindness and hospitality to strangers, their great prudence and judgment in battle, with the influence they exerted over the surrounding tribes. Wayunga was their chief. He was a bold and warlike man, possessing all the virtues of a savage race, and but few of the vices that are commonly found lurking in the bosom of the untutored Indian. He had a fair and lovely daughter, the only remnant of a once numerous family, and she was the ideal of perfection 1 Possessed of a kind and loving heart, she won the affections of all her race. When the dark brow of her father was clouded, when the strange whisperings of revenge came forth from his inmost soul, would she hasten to his side, there to comfort arid console him. She would point him toward the spirit land, where dwelt her sainted mot...
Young Men and Woman of the Present Age [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
Young Men and Woman of the Present Age "We commend the following from theSprinfield Republican. Read, reflect and practice accordingly :— There are subjects which, to touch upon with point and candor, would give pain and offence, and which need touching upon in the exact proportion that such pain would be given. Our only wish, in speaking of "our young people," is to excite a profitable course of thought, and to do good. So far as our observation extends, the young men of our acquaintance do not at all appreciate the age in which they live, or the duties which are soon to devolve upon them. We meet them in the street, we see them at church, we talk with them across the counter, we come in j contact with them in occasional conversation, and | the principal impression left upon us is a nicely fitting coat, a clean pair of boots, easy manners and a contented frame of mind. We go into } their rooms, and find a novel, which they declare Ito be very good or very stupid. The Bible is out o...
Mr. Jefferson and his Daughter Martha. [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
Mr. Jefferson and his Daughter Martha. In the superb new work soon to be issued by the Appletons. under the title of the "Republican Court, or American Society in the Days of Washington," by Rufus W. Griswold, we find an interesting letter from Mr. Jefferson to his eldest daughter, addressed to her when she was at school, in Philadelphia. This daughter was afterwards married to the Hon. Thomas Mann Randolph, of Tuckahoe, who became Governor of Virginia. Dr. Griswold says of her: "Annapolis, Nov. 18,1783. Martha Jefferson was born on the twentyseventh of September, 1772, and was therefore now a little more than seventeen years of age. Jphn Randolph said she was " the sweetest young creature in Virginia." Mr. Adams, to whose care she had been entrusted some time in Paris, refers to her with the most affectionate expressions; and Mrs. Smith, the daughter of Mrs. Adams, says, "delicacy and sensibility are read in her every ieaturc, and her manners are in unison with all that is amiable ...
Untitled [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
To make deaf persons hear the piano forte, the instrument should be opened, and a rod of deal wood provided about half an inch thick, threequarters wide, and long enough to reach from the bridge of the sounding board to the mouth of the deaf person. If one end of this rod be made to rest firmly on the bridge, and the other end be held firmly between the teeth, the softest sounds Will, it is said, be distinctly communicated. Idleness is a disease that must be combatted; but I would not advise a rigid adherence to a particular plan of study. I myself have never persisted in any plan for two days together. A man ought to read just as inclination leads him; for what he reads as a task will do him little good. — Johnson.
FROM THE EAST. [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
FROM THE EAST. By the arrival of the P. M. S. John L. Stephens, at this port on Saturday last, we have dates to the 20th December from the Eastern States. The weather was intensely cold in the eastern and middle States, on the 20th ult. It was expected that passengers from New York by the 20th January, would come through from Aspinwall to Panama by railroad. It is stated that the sudden closing of navigation has locked up about 180,000 of corn and wheat in the Welland Canal. In the Senate, on the 19th Dec, Mr. Broadhead's resolution for sending a steamer to the Arctic seas in search of Dr. Kane, was adopted. The correspondent of the Herald says:—The Pacific Railroad bill having been again postponed by Mr. McDougall until the second week in January, will probably be taken up at that time ; but it will not pass. When it has become perfectlyapparent that the Railway Bill must fail, the delegation are prepared to bring forward, and urge the immediate passage of a bill to make a Wagon Ro...
FROM EUROPE. [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
FROM EUROPE. By the West India mail, news from Europe is four days later. From the seat of war we have dates to the 22d November. On the 13th the Russians made a sortie, in which they were repulsed with a loss of 400—the French lost only 40. On the night of the 21st an encounter took place between a Russian party and the English rifles, in which the latter had the advantage. The last St. Petersburg dispatch is to the 24th. It states that up to that date no change had taken place. The seige was progressing, and fire of the beseigers slack, The Duke of Cambridge and Sir De Lacy Evans had left the army, invalided. Messrs. Petro, Brassy &amp; Co., the railroad contractors, had undertaken to lay down a railroad from Balaklava Bay to the siege works, for the purpose of bringing up amunitions, provisions, Ac*, the whole to be executed by them and handed over to the government at cost. The loss of the ailed fleet in the late storm is less than was reported. The stranded vessels were...
FROM OREGON. [Newspaper Article] — California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences — 18 January 1855
FROM OREGON. The steamer Columbia, which arrived Tuesday from Portland, Oregon, brings accounts of the loss of the steamer called the Southerner," formerly the old "Isthmus." She struck on the bar at the mouth of Columbia river, and although backed off, was found so badly strained that she could not go in. She was put to sea, though leaking badly, and headed for Puget Sound, but to prevent foundering was beached about GO miles above Cape Flattery. Some apprehensions are entertained for the safety of those on board. They were all landed to the number of thirty, on a part of the coast where the Indians are very hostile. The mails and freight are a total loss. A new steamboat called the " Jenny Clark," has been launched at Milwaukie, by Messrs. AinsMortli, Kamai &amp; Co. She is 118 feet in length, 18 feet beam, and 4 feet depth of hold, with a stern wheel, very light draught, and has been built expressly for the Portland and Oregon city trade. A salt spring has recently been d...